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She met her only friend, Natalie Washington , when she was ten years old, after Riri caught Natalie's attention while working at her open garage on some inventions meant to hopefully help superheroes some day. While having a picnic at Marquette Park , Riri, her family, and Natalie were caught in the line of fire when a drive by shooting hit some bystanders. Even though Riri was unscathed, both Natalie and Riri's step-father were hit by stray bullets and died. What started as a challenge for herself ended up becoming a secret project to create her own suit of armor.

After reverse-engineering technology from the outdated Iron Man Armor Model 41 , [3] Riri started creating her own prototype version of the Iron Man Armor , using mainly stolen material from campus. When security caught notice of her suspicious activities, Riri decided to don the suit of armor and fly away. After flying around the country trying to get the hang of her suit's flying capabilities, [8] Riri intercepted a couple of inmates escaping from the New Mexico State Penitentiary.

She managed to stop the speeding truck they were using as a escape vehicle, but at the cost of her armor's integrity. After learning of Riri's accomplishment, Tony Stark visited her and chose to endorse Riri's desire to become a super hero. In the end of the civil war, Tony Stark fell into a coma fighting Captain Marvel. Riri rapidly caught the attention of allies and enemies of Tony Stark alike. When Hydra launched a massive attack on the American government under the hand of a fascist doppelganger of Captain America , both Ironheart and the Tony Stark A.

During this time, Riri became closer to the Champions, [16] and even joined them when they left the Underground to support Spider-Man and form the Red Room to formulate a plan to take down Captain America under the guidance of Black Widow. At the psychologist's recommendation, Riri's parents looked into special care to foster her abilities, while also giving her emotional support. Riri's level of intelligence caused her to retreat inside her own mind and become an introvert. She met her only friend, Natalie Washington , when she was ten years old, after Riri caught Natalie's attention while working at her open garage on some inventions meant to hopefully help superheroes some day.

While having a picnic at Marquette Park , Riri, her family, and Natalie were caught in the line of fire when a drive by shooting hit some bystanders. Even though Riri was unscathed, both Natalie and Riri's step-father were hit by stray bullets and died. What started as a challenge for herself ended up becoming a secret project to create her own suit of armor.

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After reverse-engineering technology from the outdated Iron Man Armor Model 41 , [3] Riri started creating her own prototype version of the Iron Man Armor , using mainly stolen material from campus. When security caught notice of her suspicious activities, Riri decided to don the suit of armor and fly away. After flying around the country trying to get the hang of her suit's flying capabilities, [8] Riri intercepted a couple of inmates escaping from the New Mexico State Penitentiary.

She managed to stop the speeding truck they were using as a escape vehicle, but at the cost of her armor's integrity. After learning of Riri's accomplishment, Tony Stark visited her and chose to endorse Riri's desire to become a super hero. In the end of the civil war, Tony Stark fell into a coma fighting Captain Marvel. Riri rapidly caught the attention of allies and enemies of Tony Stark alike.

Gandhi criticised the 16 May proposal as being inherently divisive, but Patel, realising that rejecting the proposal would mean that only the League would be invited to form a government, lobbied the Congress Working Committee hard to give its assent to the 16 May proposal. Patel engaged the British envoys Sir Stafford Cripps and Lord Pethick-Lawrence and obtained an assurance that the "grouping" clause would not be given practical force, Patel converted Jawaharlal Nehru , Rajendra Prasad , and Rajagopalachari to accept the plan.

When the League retracted its approval of the 16 May plan, the viceroy Lord Wavell invited the Congress to form the government.


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Under Nehru, who was styled the "Vice President of the Viceroy's Executive Council", Patel took charge of the departments of home affairs and information and broadcasting. He moved into a government house on Aurangzeb Road in Delhi, which would be his home until his death in Vallabhbhai Patel was one of the first Congress leaders to accept the partition of India as a solution to the rising Muslim separatist movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He had been outraged by Jinnah's Direct Action campaign, which had provoked communal violence across India, and by the viceroy's vetoes of his home department's plans to stop the violence on the grounds of constitutionality.

Patel severely criticised the viceroy's induction of League ministers into the government, and the revalidation of the grouping scheme by the British without Congress's approval.

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Although further outraged at the League's boycott of the assembly and non-acceptance of the plan of 16 May despite entering government, he was also aware that Jinnah did enjoy popular support amongst Muslims, and that an open conflict between him and the nationalists could degenerate into a Hindu-Muslim civil war of disastrous consequences. The continuation of a divided and weak central government would, in Patel's mind, result in the wider fragmentation of India by encouraging more than princely states towards independence. Menon on the latter's suggestion for a separate dominion of Pakistan created out of Muslim-majority provinces.

Communal violence in Bengal and Punjab in January and March further convinced Patel of the soundness of partition. Patel, a fierce critic of Jinnah's demand that the Hindu-majority areas of Punjab and Bengal be included in a Muslim state, obtained the partition of those provinces, thus blocking any possibility of their inclusion in Pakistan. Patel's decisiveness on the partition of Punjab and Bengal had won him many supporters and admirers amongst the Indian public, which had tired of the League's tactics, but he was criticised by Gandhi, Nehru, secular Muslims, and socialists for a perceived eagerness to do so.

When Lord Louis Mountbatten formally proposed the plan on 3 June , Patel gave his approval and lobbied Nehru and other Congress leaders to accept the proposal. Knowing Gandhi's deep anguish regarding proposals of partition, Patel engaged him in frank discussion in private meetings over what he saw as the practical unworkability of any Congress—League coalition, the rising violence, and the threat of civil war.

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I fully appreciate the fears of our brothers from [the Muslim-majority areas]. Nobody likes the division of India and my heart is heavy. But the choice is between one division and many divisions. We must face facts. We cannot give way to emotionalism and sentimentality. The Working Committee has not acted out of fear. But I am afraid of one thing, that all our toil and hard work of these many years might go waste or prove unfruitful. My nine months in office has completely disillusioned me regarding the supposed merits of the Cabinet Mission Plan.

Except for a few honourable exceptions, Muslim officials from the top down to the chaprasis peons or servants are working for the League. The communal veto given to the League in the Mission Plan would have blocked India's progress at every stage. Whether we like it or not, de facto Pakistan already exists in the Punjab and Bengal. Under the circumstances I would prefer a de jure Pakistan, which may make the League more responsible. Freedom is coming. We have 75 to 80 percent of India, which we can make strong with our own genius.

The League can develop the rest of the country. Patel took the lead in organising relief and emergency supplies, establishing refugee camps, and visiting the border areas with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace. Visiting the Nizamuddin Auliya Dargah area in Delhi, where thousands of Delhi Muslims feared attacks, he prayed at the shrine, visited the people, and reinforced the presence of police.

He suppressed from the press reports of atrocities in Pakistan against Hindus and Sikhs to prevent retaliatory violence. Establishing the Delhi Emergency Committee to restore order and organising relief efforts for refugees in the capital, Patel publicly warned officials against partiality and neglect. When reports reached Patel that large groups of Sikhs were preparing to attack Muslim convoys heading for Pakistan, Patel hurried to Amritsar and met Sikh and Hindu leaders. Arguing that attacking helpless people was cowardly and dishonourable, Patel emphasised that Sikh actions would result in further attacks against Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan.

He assured the community leaders that if they worked to establish peace and order and guarantee the safety of Muslims, the Indian government would react forcefully to any failures of Pakistan to do the same. Additionally, Patel addressed a massive crowd of approximately , refugees who had surrounded his car after the meetings:. Here, in this same city, the blood of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims mingled in the bloodbath of Jallianwala Bagh. I am grieved to think that things have come to such a pass that no Muslim can go about in Amritsar and no Hindu or Sikh can even think of living in Lahore.

The butchery of innocent and defenceless men, women and children does not behove brave men I am quite certain that India's interest lies in getting all her men and women across the border and sending out all Muslims from East Punjab. I have come to you with a specific appeal. Pledge the safety of Muslim refugees crossing the city. Any obstacles or hindrances will only worsen the plight of our refugees who are already performing prodigious feats of endurance.

If we have to fight, we must fight clean. Such a fight must await an appropriate time and conditions and you must be watchful in choosing your ground. To fight against the refugees is no fight at all. No laws of humanity or war among honourable men permit the murder of people who have sought shelter and protection. Let there be truce for three months in which both sides can exchange their refugees.

This sort of truce is permitted even by laws of war. Let us take the initiative in breaking this vicious circle of attacks and counter-attacks. Hold your hands for a week and see what happens. Make way for the refugees with your own force of volunteers and let them deliver the refugees safely at our frontier. Following his dialogue with community leaders and his speech, no further attacks occurred against Muslim refugees, and a wider peace and order was soon re-established over the entire area. However, Patel was criticised by Nehru, secular Muslims, and Gandhi over his alleged wish to see Muslims from other parts of India depart.

While Patel vehemently denied such allegations, the acrimony with Maulana Azad and other secular Muslim leaders increased when Patel refused to dismiss Delhi's Sikh police commissioner, who was accused of discrimination. Hindu and Sikh leaders also accused Patel and other leaders of not taking Pakistan sufficiently to task over the attacks on their communities there, and Muslim leaders further criticised him for allegedly neglecting the needs of Muslims leaving for Pakistan, and concentrating resources for incoming Hindu and Sikh refugees.

Patel clashed with Nehru and Azad over the allocation of houses in Delhi vacated by Muslims leaving for Pakistan; Nehru and Azad desired to allocate them for displaced Muslims, while Patel argued that no government professing secularism must make such exclusions. However, Patel was publicly defended by Gandhi and received widespread admiration and support for speaking frankly on communal issues and acting decisively and resourcefully to quell disorder and violence.

Patel took charge of the integration of the princely states into India. Even today he is remembered as the man who united India. He is, in this regard, compared to Otto von Bismarck of Germany, who did the same thing in the s. Under the plan of 3 June, more than princely states were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan, or choosing independence.

Indian nationalists and large segments of the public feared that if these states did not accede, most of the people and territory would be fragmented. The Congress as well as senior British officials considered Patel the best man for the task of achieving conquest of the princely states by the Indian dominion.

Gandhi had said to Patel, "[T]he problem of the States is so difficult that you alone can solve it". He asked V.


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Menon, a senior civil servant with whom he had worked on the partition of India, to become his right-hand man as chief secretary of the States Ministry. On 6 May , Patel began lobbying the princes, attempting to make them receptive towards dialogue with the future government and forestall potential conflicts. Patel used social meetings and unofficial surroundings to engage most of the monarchs, inviting them to lunch and tea at his home in Delhi. At these meetings, Patel explained that there was no inherent conflict between the Congress and the princely order.

Patel invoked the patriotism of India's monarchs, asking them to join in the independence of their nation and act as responsible rulers who cared about the future of their people. He persuaded the princes of states of the impossibility of independence from the Indian republic, especially in the presence of growing opposition from their subjects. He proposed favourable terms for the merger, including the creation of privy purses for the rulers' descendants.

While encouraging the rulers to act out of patriotism, Patel did not rule out force. Stressing that the princes would need to accede to India in good faith, he set a deadline of 15 August for them to sign the instrument of accession document. All but three of the states willingly merged into the Indian union; only Jammu and Kashmir , Junagadh , and Hyderabad did not fall into his basket. Junagadh was especially important to Patel, since it was in his home state of Gujarat. It was also important because in this Kathiawar district was the ultra-rich Somnath temple which in the 11th century had been plundered by Mahmud of Ghazni , who damaged the temple and its idols to rob it of its riches, including emeralds, diamonds, and gold.

Patel combined diplomacy with force, demanding that Pakistan annul the accession, and that the Nawab accede to India. He sent the Army to occupy three principalities of Junagadh to show his resolve. Following widespread protests and the formation of a civil government, or Aarzi Hukumat , both Bhutto and the Nawab fled to Karachi , and under Patel's orders the Indian Army and police units marched into the state.

A plebiscite organised later produced a If Hyderabad does not see the writing on the wall, it goes the way Junagadh has gone. Pakistan attempted to set off Kashmir against Junagadh. When we raised the question of settlement in a democratic way, they Pakistan at once told us that they would consider it if we applied that policy to Kashmir.

Our reply was that we would agree to Kashmir if they agreed to Hyderabad. Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states, and it included parts of present-day Telangana , Andhra Pradesh , Karnataka , and Maharashtra states. The Nizam sought independence or accession with Pakistan. Muslim forces loyal to Nizam, called the Razakars , under Qasim Razvi , pressed the Nizam to hold out against India, while organising attacks on people on Indian soil.

Even though a Standstill Agreement was signed due to the desperate efforts of Lord Mountbatten to avoid a war, the Nizam rejected deals and changed his positions. Patel insisted that if Hyderabad were allowed to continue as an independent nation enclave surrounded by India, the prestige of the government would fall, and then neither Hindus nor Muslims would feel secure in its realm. After defeating Nizam, Patel retained him as the ceremonial chief of state, and held talks with him. Prime Minister Nehru was intensely popular with the masses, but Patel enjoyed the loyalty and the faith of rank and file Congressmen, state leaders, and India's civil servants.

Patel was a senior leader in the Constituent Assembly of India and was responsible in large measure for shaping India's constitution. Patel was the chairman of the committees responsible for minorities, tribal and excluded areas, fundamental rights, and provincial constitutions. When a delegation of Gujarati farmers came to him citing their inability to send their milk production to the markets without being fleeced by intermediaries, Patel exhorted them to organise the processing and sale of milk by themselves, and guided them to create the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union Limited , which preceded the Amul milk products brand.

Patel also pledged the reconstruction of the ancient but dilapidated Somnath Temple in Saurashtra. He oversaw the restoration work and the creation of a public trust, and pledged to dedicate the temple upon the completion of work the work was completed after his death and the temple was inaugurated by the first President of India, Dr.

Rajendra Prasad. When the Pakistani invasion of Kashmir began in September , Patel immediately wanted to send troops into Kashmir. But, agreeing with Nehru and Mountbatten, he waited until Kashmir's monarch had acceded to India. Patel then oversaw India's military operations to secure Srinagar and the Baramulla Pass, and the forces retrieved much territory from the invaders. Patel, along with Defence Minister Baldev Singh , administered the entire military effort, arranging for troops from different parts of India to be rushed to Kashmir and for a major military road connecting Srinagar to Pathankot to be built in six months.

He did not want foreign interference in a bilateral affair. Patel opposed the release of Rs. The Cabinet had approved his point but it was reversed when Gandhi, who feared an intensifying rivalry and further communal violence, went on a fast-unto-death to obtain the release. Patel, though not estranged from Gandhi, was deeply hurt at the rejection of his counsel and a Cabinet decision. In a crisis arose when the number of Hindu refugees entering West Bengal , Assam, and Tripura from East Pakistan climbed to over , The refugees in many cases were being forcibly evicted by Pakistani authorities, and were victims of intimidation and violence.

Despite his aversion, Patel reluctantly met Khan and discussed the matter. Patel strongly criticised Nehru's plan to sign a pact that would create minority commissions in both countries and pledge both India and Pakistan to a commitment to protect each other's minorities. Neogy, two Bengali ministers, resigned, and Nehru was intensely criticised in West Bengal for allegedly appeasing Pakistan. The pact was immediately in jeopardy. Patel, however, publicly came to Nehru's aid.

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He gave emotional speeches to members of Parliament, and the people of West Bengal, and spoke with scores of delegations of Congressmen, Hindus, Muslims, and other public interest groups, persuading them to give peace a final effort. In April the Government of India declassified surveillance reports suggesting that Patel, while Home Minister, and Nehru were among officials involved in alleged government-authorised spying on the family of Subhas Chandra Bose.

In his address to the probationers of these services, he asked them to be guided by the spirit of service in day-to-day administration. He reminded them that the ICS was no longer neither Imperial, nor civil, nor imbued with any spirit of service after Independence. His exhortation to the probationers to maintain utmost impartiality and incorruptibility of administration is as relevant today as it was then.

Nor must he involve himself in communal wrangles. To depart from the path of rectitude in either of these respects is to debase public service and to lower its dignity," he had cautioned them on 21 April He, more than anyone else in post-independence India, realised the crucial role that civil services play in administering a country, in not merely maintaining law and order, but running the institutions that provide the binding cement to a society.

He, more than any other contemporary of his, was aware of the needs of a sound, stable administrative structure as the lynchpin of a functioning polity. Rajmohan Gandhi , in his book writes that Nehru was focused on maintaining religious harmony, casting an independent foreign policy, and constructing a technological and industrial base, while Patel focused on getting the princely states to join the Indian Union, modernising the administrative services, and constructing a cross-party consensus on the significant elements of the Constitution.

Patel was intensely loyal to Gandhi, and both he and Nehru looked to him to arbitrate disputes. However, Nehru and Patel sparred over national issues. Patel asked Gandhi to relieve him of his obligation to serve, believing that an open political battle would hurt India.

After much personal deliberation and contrary to Patel's prediction, Gandhi on 30 January told Patel not to leave the government.

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A free India, according to Gandhi, needed both Patel and Nehru. Patel was the last man to privately talk with Gandhi, who was assassinated just minutes after Patel's departure. Patel gave solace to many associates and friends and immediately moved to forestall any possible violence. Speaking later, Patel attributed the attack to the "grief bottled up" due to Gandhi's death.

Criticism arose from the media and other politicians that Patel's home ministry had failed to protect Gandhi. Emotionally exhausted, Patel tendered a letter of resignation, offering to leave the government. Patel's secretary persuaded him to withhold the letter, seeing it as fodder for Patel's political enemies and political conflict in India. He reminded Patel of their year partnership in the independence struggle and asserted that after Gandhi's death, it was especially wrong for them to quarrel.

Nehru, Rajagopalachari, and other Congressmen publicly defended Patel. Moved, Patel publicly endorsed Nehru's leadership and refuted any suggestion of discord, and dispelled any notion that he sought to be prime minister. Nehru gave Patel a free hand in integrating the princely states into India.

Nehru declined Patel's counsel on sending assistance to Tibet after its invasion by the People's Republic of China and on ejecting the Portuguese from Goa by military force. When Nehru pressured Rajendra Prasad to decline a nomination to become the first President of India in in favour of Rajagopalachari, he angered the party, which felt Nehru was attempting to impose his will. Nehru sought Patel's help in winning the party over, but Patel declined, and Prasad was duly elected.

Nehru opposed the Congress presidential candidate Purushottam Das Tandon , a conservative Hindu leader, endorsing Jivatram Kripalani instead and threatening to resign if Tandon was elected. Patel rejected Nehru's views and endorsed Tandon in Gujarat, where Kripalani received not one vote despite hailing from that state himself. On 29 March authorities lost radio contact with a plane carrying Patel, his daughter Maniben , and the Maharaja of Patiala. Engine failure caused the pilot to make an emergency landing in a desert area in Rajasthan.

With all passengers safe, Patel and others tracked down a nearby village and local officials. When Patel returned to Delhi, thousands of Congressmen gave him a resounding welcome.